Chapter 1: Introduction to Research Analyst Profession

1.1 Primary role of a Research Analyst

1.2 Primary responsibilities of a Research Analyst

1.3 Basic principles of interaction with Companies / Clients

1.4 Important qualities of a Research Analyst

Chapter 2: Introduction to Securities Market

2.1 Introduction to Securities and Securities Market

2.2 Product Definitions / Terminology

2.2.1 Equity Shares

2.2.2 Debentures/Bonds/Notes

2.2.3 Warrants and Convertible Warrants

2.2.4 Indices

2.2.5 Mutual Fund Units

2.2.6 Exchange Traded Funds

2.2.7 Hybrids/Structured Products Preference Shares Convertible Debenture & Bonds Indian Depository Receipts (IDRs), Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) and American Depository Receipts (ADRs) Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB) Equity Linked Debentures Commodity Linked Debentures Mortgaged Backed Securities (MBS) and Asset Backed Securities (ABS)

2.3 Structure of Securities Market

2.3.1 Primary market- Explain various ways to issue Securities - Initial Public Offer (IPO), Follow on Public Offer (FPO), Private Placement, Qualified Institutional Placements (QIPs), Preferential issue, Rights and Bonus issue,  Onshore and offshore offerings, Offer for Sale (OFS)

2.3.2 Secondary market - Over-the-counter Market and Exchange Traded Markets, Trading, Clearing and Settlement and Risk Management

2.4 Various market participants and their activities

2.4.1 Market Intermediaries – Stock Exchanges, Depositories, Depository Participant, Trading Member/Stock Brokers & Sub-Brokers, Authorised Person, Custodians, Clearing Corporation, Clearing Banks, Merchant Bankers and Underwriters

2.4.2 Institutional participants – Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs), P-Note Participants, Mutual Funds, Insurance Companies, Pension Funds, Venture Capital Funds, Private Equity Firms, Hedge Funds, Alternative Investment Funds, Investment Advisers

2.4.3 Retail participants

2.5 Kinds of transactions

2.5.1 Cash, Tom and Spot trades/transactions

2.5.2 Forward transactions

2.5.3 Futures

2.5.4 Options

2.5.5 Swaps

2.5.6 Trading, Hedging, Arbitrage, Pledging of Shares

2.6 Dematerialization and Rematerialization of securities

Chapter 3: Terminology in Equity and Debt Markets

3.1 Terminology in Equity Market

3.1.1 Face Value

3.1.2 Book Value

3.1.3 Market Value

3.1.4 Replacement Value

3.1.5 Intrinsic Value

3.1.6 Market Capitalization

3.1.7 Enterprising Value

3.1.8 Earnings – Historical, Trailing and Forward

3.1.9 Earnings Per Share

3.1.10 Dividend Per Share

3.1.11 Price to Earnings Ratio

3.1.12 Price to Sales Ratio

3.1.13 Price to Book Value Ratio

3.1.14 Differential Voting Rights (DVRs)

3.2 Terminology in Debt Market

3.2.1 Face Value

3.2.2 Coupon Rate

3.2.3 Maturity

3.2.4 Principal

3.2.5 Redemption of a Bond

3.2.6 Holding Period Returns

3.2.7 Current Yield, Yield to Maturity (YTM)

3.2.8 Duration and Modified Duration

3.2.9 Convexity

3.3 Types of Bonds

3.3.1 Zero Coupon Bonds

3.3.2 Floating Rate Bonds

3.3.3 Convertible Bonds

3.3.4 Amortization Bonds

3.3.5 Callable Bonds

3.3.6 Puttable Bonds

3.3.7 Payment in Kind Bonds

3.3.8 Principal Protected Note

3.3.9 Inflation Protection Securities

Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Research

4.1 What is investing

4.2 Research on businesses or stocks

4.3 Fundamental Analysis - Top down approach and Bottom up approach

4.4 Technical Analysis

4.5 Behavioral Finance

Chapter 5: Economic Analysis

5.1 Basic principles of microeconomics

5.2 Basic principles of macroeconomics

5.3 Introduction to various macroeconomic variables

5.3.1 National income

5.3.2 Savings and Investments

5.3.3 Inflation (Consumer/Wholesale Price Indices) and interest rate

5.3.4 Unemployment rate

5.3.5 Flows from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs)

5.3.6 Fiscal policies and their impact on Economy

5.3.7 General Anti-Avoidance Rules (GAAR)

5.3.8 Monetary policies and their impact on Economy

5.3.9 International trade, Exchange rate and Trade Deficit

5.3.10 Globalization– Positives and Negatives

5.4 Sources of information for economic analysis

Chapter 6: Industry Analysis

6.1 Dr. Michael Porter’s five force model for industry analysis

6.1.1 Industry rivalry

6.1.2 Threat of substitutes

6.1.3 Bargaining power of buyers

6.1.4 Bargaining power of suppliers

6.1.5 Barriers to entry

6.2 Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) Analysis

6.3 Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Analysis

6.4 Structure Conduct Performance (SCP) Analysis

6.5 Key Industry Drivers

6.6 Regulatory environment/framework

6.7 Sources of information for industry analysis

Chapter 7: Company Analysis – Qualitative Dimensions

7.1 Understand Business and Business Models

7.2 Competitive Advantages/Points of differentiation over the competitors

7.3 Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

7.4 Quality of management (including independent directors) and governance

7.5 Pricing power and sustainability of this power

7.6 Organization structure

7.7 Critical business drivers/success factors

7.8 Risks in the business

7.9 Compliance orientation of the company

7.10 Documentation on Guidance v/s Actuals

7.11 Sources of information for analysis

Chapter 8: Company Analysis – Quantitative Dimensions

8.1 History of Business Vs. Future of Business

8.2 Basics of Profit and Loss Account (P/L)

8.3 Basics of Balance Sheet (B/S)

8.4 Basics of Cash Flows

8.5 Contingent Liabilities, Off-balance sheet items, Accounting Policies, Notes to Accounts

8.6 Basics of Taxation affecting to Companies

8.7 Important points to keep in mind while looking at financials

8.8 Quality of business in the past through quantitative lenses

8.8.1 Profitability ratios

8.8.2 Return ratios

8.8.3 Leverage ratios

8.8.4 Liquidity ratios

8.8.5 Efficiency ratios

8.9 Peeping in to future with caution

8.10 Peer Comparison

8.11 History of Equity expansion

8.12 Dividend and earnings history

8.13 History of corporate actions

8.14 Ownership and Insiders’ Sales and Purchase of stocks in the past

Chapter 9: Corporate Actions

9.1 Philosophy of corporate actions

9.1.1 Dividend

9.1.2 Rights Issue

9.1.3 Bonus Issue

9.1.4 Stock Split

9.1.5 Share Consolidation

9.1.6 Merger and Acquisition

9.1.7 Loan Restructuring

9.1.8 Buy back of shares

9.1.9 Delisting of shares

9.1.10 Share Swap

Chapter 10: Valuation Principles

10.1 Difference between Price and Value

10.2 Why Valuations are required

10.3 Sources of Value in a Business – Earnings and Assets

10.4 Discounted Cash Flows model for Business Valuation

10.5 Absolute Valuations vs. Price-Value sense

10.6 Earnings based Valuation Matrices

10.6.1 Dividend Yield – Price to Dividend Ratio

10.6.2 Earning Yield - Price to Earnings Ratio

10.6.3 Growth adjusted Price to Earnings Ratio (PEG Ratio)

10.6.4 Enterprise Value to EBDITA Ratio

10.6.5 Enterprise Value (EV) to Sales Ratio

10.7 Assets based Valuation Matrices

10.7.1 Return on Equity (ROE) based valuation –Price to Equity Book Value Ratio

10.7.2 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) based valuation – Enterprise Value (EV) to Capital Employed Ratio

10.7.3 Net Asset Value approach

10.8 Relative Valuations - Trading Multiples and Transaction Multiples

10.9 Sum-Of-The-Parts (SOTP) Valuation

10.10Other Valuation Parameters in new age economy and businesses

10.11Capital Asset Pricing Model

10.12Objectivity of Valuations

10.13Some important considerations in the context of Business Valuation

Chapter 11: Fundamentals of Risk and Return

11.1 Concept of return of investment and return on investment

11.2 Calculation of simple, annualized and compounded returns

11.3 Risks in investments

11.4 Concepts of market risk (Beta)

11.5 Sensitivity analysis to assumptions

11.6 Concept of Margin of Safety

11.7 Comparison of equity returns with bond returns

11.8 Basic Behavioral Biases influencing investments

11.9 Some pearls of wisdom from Investment Gurus across the world

Chapter 12: Qualities of a good Research Report

12.1 Qualities of a good Research Report

12.1.1 Rating Conventions – Over-weight, Under-weight, Buy, Sell and Hold recommendations

12.2 Checklist based approach to the Research Reports

12.3 A sample checklist for Investment Research Reports

Chapter 13: Legal and Regulatory Environment

13.1 Regulatory infrastructure in Financial Markets s

13.1.1 Ministry of Finance (MoF)

13.1.2 Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA)

13.1.3 Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

13.1.4 Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)

13.1.5 Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)

13.1.6 Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA)

13.1.7 Forward Markets Commission (FMC) etc.

13.2 Important regulations in Indian Securities Market

13.2.1 Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956

13.2.2 Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Act, 1992

13.2.3 Securities and Exchange Board of India (Prohibition of Insider Trading) Regulations, 2015

13.2.4 SEBI (Prohibition of Fraudulent and Unfair Trade Practices relating to Securities Markets) Regulation, 2003

13.2.5 Securities and Exchange Board of India (Research Analyst) Regulations, 2014

13.3 Code of Conduct/Ethics for Research Analysts

13.4 Disclosure Requirements for Research Analysts


1. Case Studies (Some cases from history on market events)

2. Suggested Readings

3. Reference websites




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